Some Observations on Dispositio and Elocutio in Bach’s
Wir eilen mit schwachen, doch emsigen Schritten
from BWV 78
Morgantown, West Virginia
Two tired but determined followers hasten
after Jesus, praying for His help, pointing out that He tirelessly
seeks to aid the sick and those who have strayed from the faith. Such
is the text of the Duetto, the second movement of J.S. Bach’s
cantata Jesu, der du meine Seele, BWV 78.1
In Bach’s hands, it becomes the ground of a musical oration that is
at once rich in affect, fresh in invention, and strong in structure.
It opens a window into Bach’s musical world, the world of strong Lutheran
faith and of a musical elite skilled in the art of musica poetica,
that musical-oratorical art that flowered in German culture from at
least the time of Orlando di Lasso’s stay in Munich in the late
16th century through the 17th and 18th centuries.2 The Duetto is, to be sure, a simple da capo aria for two voices and continuo. But it is also a musical speech, meant to communicate the truth of the text and to teach the listeners the truth of Bach’s sturdy and plainspoken Lutheran faith. He seems to be saying that, if by chance the text itself is not clear enough, the lucky Leipzig listeners on the Fourteenth Sunday after Trinity in 17243 will get the message by having the affections of their souls roused by the music itself.4
This short paper puts forth some preliminary observations about
the dispositio (organization, Einrichtung) and the
elocutio (the figural language, Figuren) of the
Duetto. While it will not provide by any means an
exhaustive study of the topics, if it helps performers to
understand these from an 18th-century musica poetica perspective,
it will have met its purpose.
Bach brings the traditions of rhetoric and oratory, faith, and reason
together in his music.
Rhetoric and Oratory
He was the product of the Lateinschule tradition,
with its roots in the classical tradition, and understood well how
to use rhetoric as a pedagogical and motivational tool.
The rules of oratory and rhetoric provided a vocabulary of
commonly understood gestures that composers used to "paint"
the affects.5 The German practitioner
of musica poetica took the text and fashioned the equivalent
of it in sound, using musical devices and conventions appropriate to
the affect of the text. The northern composer was not so much interested
in display or operatic fireworks, or in dramatic effect for its own
sake, but in the sober understanding of the text and its presentation
in a musical setting that revealed the meaning and communicated the message.
Good musical organization was a cornerstone of the practice. The
dispositio was carefully considered, and the appropriate tonalities
and figures, aspects of the elocutio, were then chosen.6
The dispositio of the speech is obviously the focal point of the
[medieval] theory. From classical rhetoric, however, the theory overlapped
into the epistolary genre and poetic composition, and acquired special
significance in the art of preaching, in which it achieved a
medieval perfection which was simultaneously intellectualist and
Scholastic. Here it developed -- at the time, moreover, when
polyphony was coming into general use -- in accordance with
precise rules governing the theme and countertheme, their
subdivisions, their development of countertheme, the return
or the passage from one sentence to another. This is composition
of incredible complexity, the theoretical simplicity and verbal
virtuosity of which astonish us just as they were admired by
medieval connoisseurs. The medieval sermon, the technical
beauty (i.e., the embellishments or curiosities) of which was
greatly admired by our ancestors, leads us into the
esthetics of formal construction, as understood by the medieval
writers, first of all in the literary arts, then in musical
polyphony and architecture.7
Now the quotation above, from DeBruyne's Aesthetics of the Middle Ages,
fits Bach's use of the art very well. From Boethius (480-524)
onwards theorists embraced the Pythagorean ideal of music as a kind of
speculative celestial mathematics. It was included among the subjects of
the quadrivium, along with arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy, and so
was taught by a member of the mathematics faculty. Practical music,
applied music, performance, was considered as more of a craft that dealt
with elocution and delivery, and so was aligned with rhetoric and oratory in
the trivium, made up of grammar, dialectic, and rhetoric.8
So it was as an essential part of the curriculum that Bach learned rhetoric and
oratory along with music. Musica poetica was an idea and practice of
a piece with his education. Music was a speaking art, and a primary tool
in teaching, especially the Protestant teaching of salvation by grace through
When we venture to understand
musica poetica as practiced by Bach,
we encounter another great feat of integration, that of
the world of Lutheran salvation by grace through faith
with the rationalized figures of musica poetica.
It is Bach's uncanny ability to balance these
two divergent perspectives, to meld these great streams, that is at the
root of his greatness. It is this consilience (the linking of facts
and theory across disciplines) that is central to Bach, to 18th-century and Enlightenment
thought, and, importantly for us, it also lies at the core of the
phenomenon of musica poetica. (Bach was not the "backward-looking"
traditionalist he is so often portrayed to be. He was a participant
in his times, his times were changing rapidly and continuously, and he was
certainly not immune to the zephyrs of the new.)
But before delving deeper into musica poetica proper, we
will need to understand some Luther in order to see how the mid-18th
century departed from the God-centered world-view. This will provide us
with context so that we can begin to hear what the Duetto
is saying to us, how it is
attempting to persuade and edify us, how it tries to move our souls.
not important for the reader to have faith as Luther did, or to believe
in the utter rationality of the world, as the 18th century tended to do. What is
important is to enter willingly into these worlds for a while to see things
as Bach might have, as his congregations might have, as his children and
friends might have, the better to understand how his music works.
Tillich summarizes Luther's thesis for us: one is saved by grace through faith.
This was Luther’s great, radical breakthrough against the
Roman Catholicism in which he had been brought up, and in which he served.
The Catholic system is a system of objective, quantitative,
and relative relations between God and man for the sake of providing
eternal happiness for man. This is the basic structure: objective,
not personal; quantitative, not qualitative; relative and
condititioned, not absolute.12
Tillich summarizes Luther's pointed critique for us:
The relation to God is personal. It is an I-thou relationship, mediated
not by anybody or anything, but only by accepting the message of
acceptance, which is the content of the Bible. This is not an
objective status in which one is; it is a personal relationship
which Luther called "faith", not faith in
something which one can believe, but acceptance of the
fact that one is accepted. It is qualitative, not
quantitative. Either a person is separated from God or
he is not. There are no quantitative degrees of separation
or non-separation. ...Likewise, it is unconditional and
not conditioned, as it is in the Roman system. One is not
a little bit nearer to God if one does more for the
church, or against one’s body, but one is near to God
completely and absolutely if one is united with him at
all. And if not united, one is separated. The one state is
unconditionally positive, the other unconditionally negative. The
Reformation restated the unconditional categories of the Bible.13
Bach’s music always teaches. It is always teaching the lesson that
one is saved by grace through faith - it is completely sufficient.
Reason is that function of consciousness through which we make sense of our world.
The Enlightenment, the Age of Reason (as it has been called) grew out of
the work of Bacon, Locke,
Hume, Winckelmann9, Lessing10
and others, permeated all Europe, and Bach was right in the middle of it.
His life spans a time when the air was alive with new ideas alongside the old.
He embodies the perspective with its
emphasis on preaching the Word inherited
from the Reformation as transmitted through the 16th
and 17th centuries.
In contrast, the music around him in his maturity and of succeeding
generations, was the product of a people who
increasingly came to consider that Christianity itself had been
responsible for too many of the crimes of Western civilization, and
that, rather than encouraging acceptable social behaviour,
Christianity had simply fostered superstition, ignorance,
and blind obedience to the rules and dogmas of the Church.14
Philosophy was being taught as secular religion, and the philosophes
realized this, and felt keenly the competition, as Diderot wrote to Voltaire:
It is not enough to know more than they do, it must be shown
that we are better than they are, and that philosophy can make
more people good than grace.15
It is a key differentiator, a cleavage term: grace, the
acceptance of being accepted. Grace: a term of salvation to
Luther and Bach, a term of ignorance to the 18th-century philosophes,
who wanted not to accept through belief, but who wanted simply to know.
It is a difference of critical importance to performers of 18th-century music.
To Bach, music was a powerful didactic tool. Its melodic,
harmonic, and formal gestures were codified in to a musical-rhetorical
vocabulary that provided composers with the resources to communicate
the affective content of the text. Instrumental music, too, used
the same toolkit to create a "musical oration" capable
of "speaking" in and of itself. The music thus
became a "redende Kunst", a speaking art, and a
bearer of carefully focused affect.
It is important to note in this connection that in saying that
the music bears affect we do not imply that music must mean
anything other than what it is, a fabric of tensional sonorous dynamic
relationships. It is, however, in and through this play of dynamic
energies that figures and gestures by their very physiognomy embody
and evoke affect. We will point this uncanny capacity of music
through a number of examples in the course of this paper, and will
hope, through description and association, to point to the subtle
mechanism through which the music communicates, in Bach’s hands, the
Christian message, while not in and of itself bearing any conceptual
meaning outside of itself as dynamic play.16
The specific bearers of the Affekten can be any musical element,
such as key, tempo, rhythm, or, especially for our Duetto, melodic
figures. These figures had been variously defined over the years in
treatise after treatise, whose authors included such distinguished
musicians as Johann Mattheson, Walther, Vogt, and Spiess. These
figures are of signal importance, because they formed the gestural
vocabulary of the musical style. The tradition of the musical-rhetorical
Figuren was so strong, in fact, that these motives, these temporal
gestures, these melodic shapes were carried over into succeeding
generations, and key stylistic elements in music of the rococo,
galant, empfindsamer, and even the mature classical style,
especially in the operas of Mozart, where they manifest as dramatic
gestures central to Mozart’s musical style and affective vocabulary.17
Writers such as Forkel, Marpurg, Kirnberger, and Koch wrote on the
importance and significance of musical rhetoric, with Forkel even
claiming that it was only in his time (the 1780s) that the musical style
had matured enough to make a true musical rhetoric possible.18
I venture to say that to understand music before 1800 properly, one
must account for the use of the devices of musica poetica and understand
how these are used both structurally and with affective intent, to
characterize the Affekt implied or overtly stated in the text,
and to communicate the message of the text to the listeners in subtle,
direct, immediate ways available only to music. Bach was, after all,
probably the greatest exponent of Protestant (Lutheran) thought and
doctrine after Martin Luther himself, and he is always teaching us
something in his music.19
If we come to listen to Bach’s music afresh, and hear it on its
own terms, as it is in itself, we can encounter the raw reality of
Bach’s teaching. Performers of this music owe it to themselves and
to their listeners to educate themselves in the ways of musica poetica,
and become at ease with its baroque mechanisms. Every performance
should be a meeting of the music and the mind of the listener, an
encounter at the boundary of each, so that each may inform the other,
and both benefit, the music by being understood and appreciated, and
the mind shaped, formed, and energized by the astonishing power and
subtlety of Bach’s art.
Dispositio: Organization and Form
If you are going to make a speech, the first thing you must
do is to decide what you will talk about: you must choose the
subject matter, the theme. This was known as the inventio,
and the orator relied on the loci topici, or the likely
topics for elaboration.
The topic text (Ex. 1) for this movement is the believers
beseeching Lord Jesus for help while trying as hard as they
can to reach Him, hastening with faltering, feeble, though
eager footsteps along the path. We as humans admit that we
fail with each step in life, yet we know that You seek out the
sick and those who have strayed , as we regularly do, and we
ask that you look upon us mercifully and grant us salvation
through your Grace.20
Ex. 1: The Text of the Duetto:
Wir eilen mit schwachen, doch emsigen Schritten,
O Jesu, o Meister, zu helfen zu dir!
Du suchest die Kranken und Irrenden treulich.
Ach, höre, wie wir die Stimme erheben, um Hilfe zu bitten!
Es sei uns dein gnädiges Antlitz erfreulich!
We hasten with weak [feeble], yet eager footsteps,
Oh Jesus, Oh Master, to seek after your help!
You tirelessly seek out the sick and those who have gone astray.
Oh, hear us, as we, our voices raised, pray for your help!
May your merciful countenance be gracious unto us!
Once the topic was chosen, the musical orator had to structure
the presentation such that the message be clearly stated, supported
with illustration and example, that contrary points of view be
introduced and confuted, and the argument restated in summary.
Such was the essence of the dispositio, the next area of concern
for the musicus poeticus.
The dispositio has six sections:
Ex. 2: The Six Sections of the Dispositio:
statement, commentary, proposal, a laying out of the facts
proposal, an offer of the point to be made
confirmation, affirmation, supporting arguments
argument, rebuttals of differing ideas
close, concluding comments
The composer thought as an orator would, and organized the
musical elements as the speaker would words and concepts. There must
be an opening or introduction, a statement of the main theme, or the
laying out of the facts, a clear statement of the point to be made,
supporting arguments, rebuttals of differing or contrary points of
view, and an affirmation in the close, or concluding comments. For
the German composer especially, orderly construction and figural
eloquence were favored over dramatic delivery, theatrics, and display.21
If we ignore musica poetica for the moment and analyse the
form in purely musical-material terms, the Duetto is a da capo aria,
with the first section a ternary form in the key of B-flat, with a
movement to the dominant F in mm. 16-30, and a reestablishment of the
tonic thereafter. The second section moves to g-minor, and throughout
its 47 measures it features the shifting, sometimes inchoate harmonic
vocabulary typical of the form. The third section is a literal repeat
of the first section.
But the Duetto demands that we hear it as a musical oration.
It follows the classical recipe of
the dispositio: exordium, narratio, propositio,
confutatio, and peroratio. The first section
has an exordium of 8 measures, which exposes the material that will
be worked with and elaborated. This is followed by a narratio, also
of 8 measures, which is the first statement of the canonic vocal
theme above a repetition of the exordium in the continuo. The propositio
stretches for 14 measures, elaborating on the material stated in the
exordium and narratio. The confirmatio, starting in m. 30, restates
the opening material, and reinforces its message through repetition.
The peroratio (mm. 37-50) brings the section to a close by summarizing
the thematic material with a succinct restatement.
The Aria Duetto is also formally a da capo aria,
with the first section a ternary form in the key of B-flat, with a
movement to the dominant F in mm. 16-30, and a re-establishment of
the tonic thereafter. The B section moves to the relative minor on G,
and is characterized by unstable, shifting tonality,
and by the introduction of
contrasting musical material. It is a true confutatio section,
where the contrasting musical "arguments" are dealt with and,
with the reestablishment of the dominant of the home key of
B-flat, successfully rebutted.The third section is a literal
repeat of the first: it constitutes an extended peroratio,
for it reestablishes the main thematic material and brings
the movement to a close.22
Ex. 3: Form of the Duetto (da capo sections, dispositio elements, and key areas):
unstable, shifting tonality, moving to cadence firmly in the dominant ==>
vi - iii
II - V
Elocutio: Figures and Affect
The exordium exposes the material that forms the basis
for subsequent elaboration: the stepwise movement, first ascending, then
descending, balanced three measures each.
The organ and violoncello parts outline both a pedal on F as well
as an ascending line (anabasis) that moves from A to D. The
pedal for the first 3 measures is below the moving line. Bach inverts
this in mm. 4-6, where the pedal, now on B-flat is above the moving
line that descends diatonically from E-flat through B-flat, forming a
retrograde inversion of the opening four measures. This is
an epanodos,23 or
hypallage,24 a chiastic
figure which forms a musical cross.25
The voices make their entries in mm. 8 and 10, one following the other
canonically at the interval of a second. As Alfred Dürr has pointed
out, this imitative writing embodies the idea of "following"
presented in the text.26 The vocal
statements are elaborations of the diatonic material exposed in
the exordium. The core gesture of the vocal lines is
a circulatio figure set to a rhythm of an eighth, two sixteenths,
and two eighths. The first eighth and two sixteenths
(long-short-short, _ u u) form a dactyl, a common musica poetica
rhythmic foot having the connotation of serious, grave, solemn. The two
eighths on beat two form a trochee (long-short, _u), a rhythmic foot
associated with running, movement, or even with dancing. In mm. 16ff,
Bach sets the words "o Jesu" with a gesture of supplication:
a descent of a third followed by a lower neighbor, then back to
the original note.
The voices then return to the theme, this time with the alto
leading the way. The voices start at the same pitches on which
they entered earlier, in mm. 8-11, but the tonal movement here
at the beginning of the narratio is toward the tonic B-flat,
whereas the initial statement had been clearly in the dominant.
The propositio extends from mm. 16-30. In m. 25, an A-flat
is introduced in the alto, signaling a move to the subdominant.
But by m. 36, in the confirmatio, the tonic has been
reestablished, and the section is closed out with a reiteration
of the instrumental exordium.
A following confutatio in the relative G-minor comprises
three episodes that develop material from the exordium. These
are separated by instrumental ritornelli that vary the material of the
opening eight measures. The text speaks of the sick and those who
stray ("die Kranken und Irrenden"). The tonality
exhibits a shiftiness, a straying from the stability and confident
directness of the opening section. This is the dubitatio, a
section of uncertainty that characterizes the doubt in the minds of
those who are sick or who are straying. These unfortunates are reflected
in the tonal "straying" from the relative minor to its
subdominant, then to distant F-minor, finally to cadence firmly in
C-minor in m. 60. The melodic writing in mm. 51-60 continues dactyls,
but stretches and reshapes them by lengthening the initial syllable,
and by chromatically altering the line. Particularly striking is
the saltus duriusculus (the leap)27
of a diminished seventh in the soprano in m. 58, which evokes the extreme
situation of those in need of help.
The soprano sings two agogically-accented overlapping Phrygian
inflections28 in mm. 53-57 to the
words "die Kranken und Irrenden". The first is F-E-flat-D-flat-C,
the second is a diminished fourth E-flat-D-flat-C-B-natural, while the
tonality hovers around a cadence in C-minor. In mm. 53-55, the long
notes F, D, and E-flat form a subsumptio, an extended form of
the same gesture that first appeared in
mm. 16-18.29 The cross-relations of
D to D-flat and B-natural to B-flat reflect the pain and suffering of
The cadence in C-minor at m. 60 closes the first episode.
The following ritornello further establishes the key. Starting in
m. 64, the soprano and alto (in thirds) beseech that their voices be
heard in the second episode. They pray "Ach! Höre"
three times, with the words separated by rests. The first marked by the
descent of a half-step, the next a repetition a third lower. These musical
sighs are suspiratio figures that evoke the longing of the
faithful.30 The third "Ach! Höre" is
strikingly set with a Phrygian inflection in both voices, as the seekers
reach their lowest point emotionally on a dominant seventh of G-minor.
But then their voices rise up ("erheben") in the same
dactyl-trochee rhythm as in the exordium. The soprano
reaches the highest note of the entire movement with the B-flat in m.72.
The alto in mm.72ff has a wonderful pathopoeia figure
descending from D down through A, with the notes D, C-sharp, B-flat, A
forming another Phrygian inflection, and then another pathopoeia
from F down through E, E-flat, D, and finally to C-sharp, for yet
another Phrygian. This drama is followed by the leap of a sixth
immediately followed by a saltus duriusculus of a diminished
seventh from B-flat to C-sharp. These melodic grotesqueries reflect
the psyche in turmoil, desperately praying for help. The second
episode concludes in m. 80 in D-minor. After a ritornello telescoped
from four to three measures, the third episode (a confirmatio)
begins in F with the voices once again following each other
canonically as they pray optimistically for blessing. The episode
ends in m. 98, cadencing in the dominant of the home key of the
Through an understanding Bach’s use of oratorical organization,
the musical figures, and the rhythmic feet, seasoned with some insight
into Luther and the Enlightenment, we can hear his music
not as a depiction, nor representation, of the text, but rather
as the actual embodiment of the affects of the text in music.
The music does not "mean" or "represent" anything,
it actually "is" the hastening, the weakness,
the determination, the doubt, the beseeching, the desperation,
the confidence. Bach has created for us a musical parallel to the text
to bring us to see the light.
Somewhere T.S. Eliot says that we are the music while the music lasts. I
find this uncannily so with the Bach cantatas. He was truly the
foremost musicus poeticus of his, and perhaps any, era.
1Schmieder, Wolfgang, Thematisch-Systematisches Verzeichnis der musikalischen Werke von Johann Sebastian Bach (Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis), 5. unveränderte Auflage, Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1973, pp.105-106. The text is from the second strophe of a redaction by an unknown author of a hymn by Johann Rist dating from 1641. See Dürr, Alfred, Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach, Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1975, Band 2, p. 433.
2See Leuchtmann, Horst, Die musikalischen Wortausdeutungen in den Motetten des Magnum opus musicum von Orlando di Lasso (Collection d'études musicologiques, Bd. 38), Baden-Baden: Koerner, 1972, 149 p.; esp. pp. 7-29 on di Lasso's understanding of rhetoric, oratory, and the musical-rhetorical figures in his music, the bulk of which was written in Munich. See also Bartel, Dietrich, Musica Poetica: Musical-Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997, 471 p.; esp. vii-xiv for a succinct overview in English.
3Bach was installed as Kantor at the Thomas-Kirche on June 1, 1723. His debut was actually on May 30, the First Sunday after Trinity, in the same year. BWV 78 dates from the 14th Sunday after Trinity, 1724. See David, Hans T., and Arthur Mendel, eds., The Bach Reader, Revised Edition, New York: W. W. Norton, 1966, 474 p., esp. pp. 89ff. on his new job in Leipzig.
4Mattheson, Johann, Der volkommene Kapellmeister, Hamburg, 1739, Faksimile-Nachdruck hrsg. Margarete Reimann, Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1954, p.207; the passage is also cited in Bartel, p. 29.
5Schmitz, Arnold, Die Bildlichkeit der wortgebundenen Musik Johann Sebastian Bachs, Mainz: Schott, 1949, (Neue Studien zur Musikwissenschaft, I), pp.17f.
6Bartel, pp. 60ff.
7De Bruyne, Edgar, transl. Eileen B. Hennessy, The Esthetics of the Middle Ages, New York: Ungar, 1969, p. 203.
8Highet, Gilbert, The Classical Tradition: Greek and Roman Influences on Western Literature, New York: Oxford, 1949, pp. 367ff.
9Cf., on the validity of Enlightenment
thought, Edward O. Wilson's fascinating article, "Back from Chaos,"
Atlantic Monthly 281,3, March, 1998; from the header copy,"Enlightenment thinkers
knew a lot about everything, today's specialists know a lot about a
little, and postmodernists doubt that we can know anything at all.
One of the century's most important scientists argues, against fashion,
that we can know what we need to know, and that we will discover
underlying all forms of knowledge a fundamental unity." See also
Winckelmann, Johann Joachim, Gedanken über die Nachahmung der
griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst
(Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and
Sculpture), 1755; Highet describes it
as "the beginning of the German Renaissance" (p. 369).
10Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, Laokoon, 1766, in which Lessing takes issue with Winckelmann on the inherent similarity among the arts. A version in English is available as Laocoön: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry, transl. Edward Allen McCormick, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962, xxx, 259p.
12Tillich, Paul, A History of Christian Thought From Its Judaic and Hellenistic Origins to Existentialism, ed. by Carl E. Braaten, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967, 1968, p. 228.
13Tillich, p. 229.
14Till, Nicholas, Mozart and the Enlightenment: Truth, Virtue and Beauty in Mozart's Operas, New York: W.W. Norton, 1992, pp. 118f.
15Till, p. 119.
16I am particularly indebted in this connection Prof. William B. Kimmel, late of Hunter College and the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York, for his classes and commentary on musica poetica and the music of Bach and Mozart.
17The present author's work-in-progress on dramatic gesture in Mozart's Idomeneo will document Mozart's use of traditional figural gestures in the context of the classical style.
18Forkel, Johann N. Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik, Göttingen, 1788. Facs. ed. B. Engelke, Magdeburg, Geschichtsblätter für Stadt und Land Magdeburg, 1914; cited in Bartel, p. 159.
19Cf. Smend, Friedrich, Bach-Studien: Gesammelte Reden und Aufsätze, hrsg. Christoph Wolff, Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1969, 280 p.; on p. 157 we read, "As Luther himself placed music right after theology in order of importance, for Bach, theology was next in importance after his own profession, music."
20Cf. the Gospel of Luke xvii, 11-19, on the healing of the lepers.
21Cf. Bartel, Musica poetica, pp. 66ff.; see also Dammann, Rolf, Der Musikbegriff im Deutschen Barock, Köln: Arno Volk, 1967, 523 p., esp. 128ff.; Mattheson, Der Volkommene Kapellmeister, 235ff.
22For further on form in the da capo aria, see Berry, Wallace, Form in Music, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966, 472 p., esp. pp. 80ff.
23Walther, Johann G., Musikalisches Lexikon, Leipzig, 1732, facs. ed. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1967. See also Bartel, pp. 260ff.
24Burmeister, Joachim, Musica poetica, Rostock, 1606, facs. ed. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1966. See also Bartel, pp. 298ff.
25Lanham, Richard A., A Handlist of
Rhetorical Terms: A Guide for Students of English Literature, Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1969, pp. 22-23. It is also known
as the antimetabole or commutatio. See also Sonnino,
Lee A., A Handbook to Sixteenth Century Rhetoric, London:
Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968, pp.42-43, and Bartel, pp. 298ff.,
on the hypallage figure (fugal inversion) in Burmeister's Musica poetica.
See further in Peacham's Garden of Eloquence, 164: "a forme
of speech which inverteth a sentence by the contrary, thus: It behoveth
thee to eate that thou maist live, and not to live that thou maist eat."
26Dürr, p. 433.
27Bartel, pp. 381-384.
28The descent, usually through a fourth,
often in the form of a pathopoeia, with the concluding interval
of a half step. Prof. William B. Kimmel coined the term in
classes and in his unpublished paper, "The Phrygian Inflection
and the Appearances of Death in Music," New York, 1977.
29Bartel, pp. 385-389.
30Bartel, pp. 392-394.
31The reader is referred to the score in the Neue Bach Ausgabe for reference or, if the NBA is not available, to the Eulenburg miniature score (Nr. 1031). A fine recording of BWV 78 is by The Bach Ensemble led by Joshua Rifkin, L'Oiseau-Lyre 455 706-2, a bargain 2-CD set that also includes BWV 8, 51, 80, 140, and 147.